code

Forks and file descriptors - an intro to Unix concepts

I’m exploring MIT’s course on Operating System Engineering in the hopes to get a better feel for how Linux works under the hood, and it’s already answered a few questions about the things I was seeing in ps earlier. Though the OS course deals with a Unix variant (not Linux), the low-level architecture is similar enough that I think I can assume Linux operates the same way.

xv6, the Unix variant used in this course, has a kernel that interfaces with hardware and user-level programs. This creates the notion of “user space” and “kernel space,” with a single process jumping back and forth between the two to complete its work. When the process needs to use one of the services from the kernel, it invokes a system call - a specific function in the kernel.

Unix provides these services (and many more, but this appears to be all xv6 offers):

  1. fork(), which creates a process
  2. exit(), which terminates the current process
  3. wait(), which waits until a child process exits
  4. kill(pid), which kills a process with the given PID
  5. getpid(), return current process’s PID
  6. sleep(n), sleep for n seconds
  7. exec(filename, *argv), load a file and execute it with the given arguments
  8. sbrk(n), increase process memory by n bytes
  9. open(filename, flags), open a file with read or write flags
  10. read(fd, buf, n), read n bytes from an open file into a buffer buf
  11. write(fd, buf, n), write n bytes from a buffer buf into an open file
  12. close(fd), release open file fd
  13. dup(fd), duplicate fd
  14. pipe(p), create a pipe and return fd’s in p
  15. chdir(dirname), change the current directory
  16. mkdir(dirname), create a new directory
  17. mknod(name, major, minor), create a device file
  18. fstat(fd), return info about an open file
  19. link(f1, f2), create another name (f2) for the file f1
  20. unlink(filename), remove a file

The shell uses each of the system calls to do its work. It’s just a run-of-the-mill program like anything else.

The xv6 textbook provides the following mini-example of a program using fork to do its work. I want to give it a shot running on my own machine. Here’s how the proram is written in the textbook:

int pid;

pid = fork();

if(pid > 0){

printf("parent: child=%d\n", pid);

pid = wait();

printf("child %d is done\n", pid);

} else if(pid == 0){

printf("child: exiting\n");

exit();

} else {

printf("fork error\n");

}

And here’s how I had to tweak it to get it running on my Mac:

#include
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
	int pid;

	pid = fork();
	if(pid > 0) {
        printf("parent: child=%d\n", pid);
        pid = wait(0);
        printf("child %d is done\n", pid);
	} else if(pid == 0) {
        printf("child: exiting\n");
        exit(0);
	} else {
	    printf("fork error\n");
	}

	return 0;
}

The stdio.h library makes sense, because that’s what contains the printf() functions to dump things out to the console. I received an error when I tried to use fork() without unistd.h, so I’m assuming fork() sits there, and I received more errors when I tried to use wait() and exit() without stdlib.h. fork() contains the same memory contents of the parent process - in the parent process, fork() will return the child’s PID, but in the child, it will return 0 - so we see the if statements trigger for the child and for the parent.

exec(), by contrast, doesn’t return to the parent process. It replaces the calling process with a new process stored somewhere in the file system. Let’s take a look at the textbook’s pseudocode:

char *argv[3];

argv[0] = "echo";
argv[1] = "hello";
argv[2] = 0;
exec("/bin/echo", argv);
printf("exec error\n");

Try as I might, I couldn’t get this program into a usable shape where it would run. After two nights banging my head against it, I decided to scrap it - mostly because I get the gist of what it’s going for. Here was where I finished up:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int main() {
    char args[3];
    args[0] = "echo";
    args[1] = "hello";
    args[2] = "0";
    exec("/bin/echo", args);
    printf("exec error\n");
}

I think that the probably may ultimately have something to do with the differing implementations of a Mac OS (where I’m testing this) versus a true Linux platform. At any rate, this helps me understand what my shell is doing! It’s doing a combo of these two programs to execute any program I type into the shell. It first takes my command from the command line, then forks the command line process, calls my command using exec, waits for the command to finish, then returns control using wait(). And that’s why certain processes don’t immediately jump back over to shell control (things like vi for example), because the forked process hasn’t given control back until I close vi.

Ooh, and this also helps systemd make more sense. I suspect that systemd takes control of PID 1 and then immediately loops through anything in the /etc/systemd/system/ folder to start launching services based on the configuration files there, forking processes as it goes.

Next up on our list of functionality is I/O, where we start with file descriptors. According to the text, a file descriptor is an integer tied to some kernel-managed file object. User-level programs deal with the file object through the read() and write() system calls. The read(fd, buf, n) call takes in a file descriptor integer and reads n bytes into buffer buf. Subsequent calls to read() will start where n stopped. If we called read(12, buf, 512), we would read 512 bytes from fd 12 into buffer buf on the first read. If we called it again, we would start at byte #512 then read another 512 bytes (ending at 1024). write(fd, buf, n) follows a similar pattern, writing n bytes from buffer buf to file descriptor fd.

Here is the pseudocode given for a simple cat-like program:

char buf[512];
int n;

for(;;) {
	// with file descriptor 0, read 512 bytes from file
	n = read(0, buf, sizeof buf);

	if(n == 0) {
		// if we've reached the end
		break;
	}

	if(n < 0) {
		// if n less than 0, error
		fprintf(2, "read error");
		exit();
	}

	if(write(1, buf, n) != n) {
		// write to output object 1, log if error
		fprintf(2, "write error");
		exit();
	}
}

So I read from fd 0 to a buffer, then write from that buffer to an output object. That could be a terminal output:

cat myfile.txt

or piped to a command:

cat myfile.txt | awk --something something--

or written to another file:

cat myfile.txt > myfile2.txt

cat doesn’t have to care, it’s reading and writing to any descriptor that’s given to it.

Rounding out the file descriptor system calls is dup(). dup() takes in a file descriptor integer and returns another file descriptor that points to the same file.

The file descriptor mechanism is way more powerful than I originally gave it credit for. It’s a simple little trick, but it’s brilliant - because things can write to a “file”, even if it’s not a file at all. The user processes can treat them all the same way.

Okay, I’m going to put a stop to things there before moving on to pipes!